By Karen Tracy, Nikolas Coupland
The stories during this monograph percentage universal positive factors: a acceptance of the intertwined nature of "goal" and "discourse"; and a acceptance that individuals as a rule have multiple target once they speak with others. it's crucial that targets and discourse be conceived of as intertwined thoughts: if speak is conceived as primarily a method of motion then those activities will frequently be taken within the pursuance of "objectives". Correspondingly if we think that individuals process many social episodes with particular designs, objectives, needs - most likely additionally misgivings and avoidances - then it sort of feels average to examine speak as at the least a possible goal-fulfillment mechanism.
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Extra resources for Multiple Goals In Discourse
W1 could be a direct maximally efficient answer to B1 or B6. It has the potential to threaten the actor's freedom of action by complying with the direction of the questioner and providing no option for topic change on the actor's part. It is interpreted as being a TNS*. W2 and W4 are similarly direct, maximally efficient answers that could be in response to B4 and B5, respectively, and are also interpreted as TNS*. If W3 is taken as an answer to B1 it is a direct answer with an elaboration. It includes sufficient information to redirect the questioner and, as such, potentially protects the actor's negative face (PNS*) by opening up options.
PNS) W2: Only a couple of minutes after the beginning of the incident. Example 3 (TNO) B3: And I suppose you were angry and such like when you went across the road? (PPS/TNO) W3: I was not angry, I was upset. (TPO/TNO) B4: What, because you saw this shouting match between these two fellows? (TNS) W4: Yes. (TPO/TNO) B5: Neither of whom you knew? (TNS/TPS) W5: No. Example 4 (TPO/TNO) B6: And you say he hit you hard six or seven times, or something? (PNS*) W6: Five or six times. (TPO/TNO) B7: What, you counted these as they hit you, or is this your recollection?
In two studies, subjects were asked to characterise talk occurring at turning points. Baxter & Wilmot (1984) found that while 'direct talk' may be used to assess the state of a relationship, romance partners more frequently use 'secret tests'. Respondents reported secret tests that researchers described as comprising seven cluster types. Females reported more secret test strategies than did males, as did people in transition from platonic to romantic relationships. In a subsequent study, Baxter & Wilmot (1985) again found that some turning points attracted more direct talk than others.