By Marjorie Mayo
Cultures, groups, Identities explores a variety of cultural options to advertise participation and empowerment in either First and 3rd global settings. This publication begins through examining modern debates on cultures, groups, and identities, within the context of globalization. This units the framework for the dialogue of cultural techniques to wrestle social exclusion and to advertise neighborhood participation in transformative agendas for neighborhood monetary and social improvement. the ultimate bankruptcy specializes in using cultural options and new applied sciences throughout nationwide limitations, on the international point.
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Additional info for Cultures, Communities, Identities: Cultural Strategies for Participation and Empowerment
256). Addressing this recurrent dilemma, Harvey developed similar argu- Communities, Identities and Social Movements 47 ments. Identity politics had a key and progressive role, he argued, in the struggle to break with an identity which internalised oppression. Carried to extremes, as an end in itself, however, he argued that identity politics could lead to fragmentation, undermining the potential for developing solidarity between different oppressed and exploited groups (Harvey, 1993). Once again, then, the point was not whether but how, identity politics were being developed, according to which perspective.
In place of universalist meta-narratives, and grand plans, postmodernism has focused instead upon diversity and difference. Rejecting theories of history as the story of human progress, the emphasis shifts instead from time to the study of space and place, the local and the global, in an increasingly globalised world of mass communications technologies which is also a world of increasing fragmentation, and difference (Watson and Gibson, 1995). The allencompassing identities of class, in the traditional Marxist framework become similarly fragmented into a range of diverse identities, based upon factors such as gender, ethnicity, locality and culture (aspects which are explored in more detail, in subsequent chapters).
The multi-dimensionality of the individual has long been recognised, more generally, in the social sciences. Psychoanalytical theories as developed by Freud and others, have added their particular critiques of the notion of identity as the identity of ‘rational man’, exploring the significance of the unconscious, as well as the conscious. Freud’s account of the formation of the individual was of the individual as a complex being, shaped at both conscious and unconscious levels by interacting with society (Zaretsky, 1994).