By Eivind J. Øvreli, Kai Tang, Thorvald Engh (auth.), Kazuo Nakajima, Noritaka Usami (eds.)
This quantity offers a entire survey of the technological know-how and know-how of crystal development of Si for sun cells with emphasis on primary technological know-how. ranging from feedstock, crystal development of bulk crystals (single crystal and multicrystals) and skinny movie crystals are mentioned. a number of illustrations advertise a comprehension of crystal-growth physics. the elemental wisdom on crystal development mechanisms acquired via this publication will give a contribution to destiny advancements of novel crystal progress applied sciences for extra development of conversion potency of Si-based sunlight cells.
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Additional info for Crystal Growth of Si for Solar Cells
Shimanuki, A. Higuchi, H. Furuya, US Patent 4,981,549, Jan. 1, 1991 5. K. Takano, I. Fusegewa, H. Yamagishi, US Patent 5,361,721, Nov. 8, 1994 6. T. Tsukada, M. Hozawa, J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 23, 164 (1991) 7. G. Mihalik, B. Fickett. Energy eﬃciency opportunities in silicon ingot manufacturing. Semiconductor Fabtech. 10th edn. ICG Publishing, 191–195 (1999) 8. P. E. Sacudean, J. Cryst. Growth 97, 125 (1989) 9. P. Sabhapathy, Report on “Computer simulation of ﬂow and heat transfer in CG6000 during 144 mm diameter crystal growth with 16-in hot zone”.
The cost of graphite heaters and elements cannot be ignored as well. In addition, from the investor point of view, the higher capital investment somehow discourages the use of large pullers for cheaper products. Therefore, large pullers, such as Kayex 150 or higher models, have not yet been used for solar ingot production. However, the cost for equipments and parts increases rapidly with the size. Therefore, without increasing the diameter for an economic ingot production, a continuous process should be considered seriously in the near future.
However, there is always a trade-oﬀ on the high growth rate. , V GS , is proportional to the pulling rate, and the minority-carrier lifetime usually decreases with the increasing cooling rate , ﬁnding an optimal V /G is necessary for crystal quality. 5 Conclusions and Comments With the dramatic increase of the demand on silicon solar ingots since 2003, the price of the solar silicon has increased rapidly in conjunction with the soaring price of raw polysilicon. Such a demand is believed to continue for another 2 or 3 years.