By W Ingamells
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Extra info for Colour for Textiles: A User's Handbook
Further reading D G Duff and R S Sinclair, Giles’s laboratory course in dyeing, 4th Edn (Bradford: SDC, 1990), 3–6, 148–51. Contents The dyeing of synthetic-polymer and acetate fibres, Ed. D M Nunn (Bradford: Dyers’ Company Publications Trust, 1979), Chapter 1. W R Beath, Textiles, 8 (1979) 42. 26 J E Ford, Textiles, 16 (1987) 37. J E Ford, Textiles, 17 (1988) 32. Home THREE 3· THE CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES CHAPTER OF COLORATION The chemical principles of coloration Introduction Although dyeing is a chemical operation, most of the simpler processes may be carried out on the small scale by sensible people who have very little chemical knowledge.
2). The formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent cellulose chains has a particularly important effect, for without them a water molecule would become attached to each hydroxyl group 52 in the cellulose chains and the fibre would dissolve. Cellulose will not dissolve in water, however, and Home 4· THE ATTRIBUTES OF FIBRES in fact is insoluble in all O O but a few organic solvents. 2 H bond H C H OH O on before the temperature O S O N N N N interaction between the polymer chains is so OCH3 OCH3 O S O O O OH CH2OH OH cellulose chain rises to a level at which they could be torn apart to form H a liquid.
In cotton fibres the cellulose molecules exist as fully extended chains aligned sufficiently close in register to enable crystallisation to occur within the fibre. The crystalline material is difficult to deform and this, together with the already extended configuration of the molecules, makes cotton fibres hard to stretch. All the molecules in the cross-section of the fibre take a share of the imposed stress, and consequently cotton fibres will withstand a high tensile force before breaking. But crystalline material is also brittle and cotton fibres are easily fractured on bending, a property that is associated with a reduced resistance to abrasion.