By J. Shore
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Such is their stability in strongly acidic solution that they are even used in cleaning compositions based on hydrofluoric acid . 3 The theory of surface activity The physico-chemical theory of surface activity is a vast field and no more than broad principles can be touched on here; major reference sources exist for those who require more detail of the relationship between chemical structure and the various surfactant properties such as wetting, detergency and emulsification-solubilisation [32–36].
The alkylsuccinates and sulphosuccinates are particularly powerful wetting agents. Clearly, as the hydrophobic character of the surfactant is increased, aqueous solubility decreases and oil solubility increases. Thus the balance between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties of a surfactant is a critical factor in determining its major characteristics. This is referred to as the hydrophile–lipophile balance, or HLB (the term ‘lipophile’, of course, being analogous to ‘hydrophobe’). Whilst the HLB value is of general use in expressing the characteristics of a surfactant, it is of particular value in describing the formation of emulsions.
Pmd 498 15/11/02, 15:44 ELECTROLYTES AND pH CONTROL 499 compounds. It seems likely that they would be used in complex formation rather than in the more traditional roles associated with electrolytes in textile processing. In whatever role electrolytes are used, their effects on the environment need to be considered, particularly when discharged to effluent. High salt loading is undesirable in waste water and sodium sulphate in particular causes corrosion of concrete pipes. It thus makes sense to choose electrolytes carefully and to use the minimum amounts consistent with obtaining the desired effects.