By Wen-Shing Tseng
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Extra resources for Chinese Culture and Mental Health
There was a general feeling among Chinese intellectuals and officials that China must recover and restore its past glory. The Self-Strengthening Movement, which was shortlived and unsuccessful, was the beginning of an agonizing process of awakening and protest that lasted nearly a century. Kang Yu-wei and Liang Chichao attempted to capitalize on these popular sentiments in their Hundred Day Reform but failed because the Dowager Empress intervened. Sun Yatsen rode on the crest of the same nationalist emotions and succeeded in toppling the Manchu dynasty.
Previous analyses of Chinese culture have been guilty, we Delieve, of focusing exclusively on the dependent aspects of Chinese behavior. " REFERENCES Abbott, K. A. 1970 Harmony and individualism. Taipei: The Orient Culture Service. Bauman, Z. 1976 Toward a critical sociology. London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Bloom, A. H. 1977 A cognitive dimension of social control: The Hong Kong Chinese in crosscultural comparison. In A. A. Wilson, S. L. Greenblatt, and R. W. ), Deviance and social control in Chinese society.
In the achievement-oriented and highly competitive, capitalist society of Hong Kong, this relation-oriented behavioral pattern continues to be a viable cultural phenomenon coexisting with the universalistic, rational pattern of behavior. It is important to bear in mind that traditional familism has been eroded in Hong Kong due primarily to vast institutional processes of industrialization and urbanization. The ascriptive aspect of Chinese familism is fading (King and Leung, 1975). A new kind of familism in which utilitarian considerations are the hallmark of relation6 This salient social phenomenon was officially recognized and criticized.