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McEwan, C. Barreto and E. Neves (eds) Unknown Amazonia, British Museum Press, London, UK, pp86–105 Retan, G. A. (1915) ‘Charcoal as a means of solving some nursery problems’, Forestry Quarterly, vol 13, pp25–30 Robertson, G. P. and Swinton, S. M. (2005) ‘Reconciling agricultural productivity and environmental integrity: A grand challenge for agriculture’, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol 3, pp38–46 Sabine, C. , Bakker, D. C. T. , Field, C. , Quéré, C. le, Prinn, R. , Richey, J. , Lankao, P.

Contents of heavy metals can be a concern in sewage sludge and some specific industrial wastes, and should be avoided. However, biochar applications are, in contrast to manure or compost applications, not primarily a fertilizer, which has to be applied annually. Due to the longevity of biochar in soil, accumulation of heavy metals by repeated and regular applications over long periods of time that can occur for other soil additions may not occur with biochar. Biochar to produce energy Capturing energy during biochar production and, conversely, using the biochar generated during pyrolysis bioenergy production as a soil amendment is mutually beneficial for securing the production base for generating the biomass (Lehmann, 2007a), as well as for reducing overall emissions (see Chapter 18; Gaunt and Lehmann, 2008).

This is complemented with the voids, formed as pores (macro-, meso- and micropores), cracks and morphologies of cellular biomass origin. This effect increases with HTT. Lua et al (2004) demonstrated, for example, that increasing the pyrolysis temperature from 250°C to 500°C increases the BET surface area due to the increasing evolution of volatiles from pistachio-nut shells, resulting in enhanced pore development in biochars. 1) (Emmerich et al, 1987). The spacing between the planes of turbostratic regions of biochar is larger than that observed in graphite (Emmerich et al, 1987; Laine and Yunes, 1992).

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