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C. T. , Field, C. , Quéré, C. le, Prinn, R. , Richey, J. , Lankao, P. , Sathaye, J. A. and Valentini, R. (2004) ‘Current status and past trends of the global carbon cycle’, in C. B. Field and M. R. Raupach (eds) SCOPE 62,The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, Island Press,Washington, DC, US, pp17–44 Sanchez, P. A. (2002) ‘Soil fertility and hunger in Africa’, Science, vol 295, pp2019–2020 Santiago, A. and Santiago, L. W. I. and Noack, A. G. (2000) ‘Black carbon in soils and sediments: Analysis, distribution, implications, and current challenges’, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol 14, pp777–794 Shindo, H.
Such an approach does not apply only to global warming, but also to large-scale efforts to deliver food security to more people worldwide, to produce energy and to improve waste management. 3) and operate on different scales, and can therefore be very different from each other (see Chapter 9). Concerns over using biomass resources that would otherwise fulfil ecosystem services or human needs have to be taken into full consideration. Possible conflicts of producing energy and biochar versus food as a consequence of massive adoption of biochar technologies have to be considered, as discussed for bioenergy in general (Müller et al, 2008).
Hence, during thermal conversion, the mineral and C skeleton formed retains the 16 BIOCHAR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT rudimentary porosity and structure of the original material. The residual cellular structures of botanical origin that are present and identifiable in biochars from woods and coals of all ranks contribute the majority of the macroporosity present (Wildman and Derbyshire, 1991). Confirming this, microscopy analysis of physically activated carbon has illustrated the presence of aligned honeycomb-like groups of pores on the order of 10µm in diameter, most likely the carbonaceous skeleton from the biological capillary structure of the raw material (Laine et al, 1991).