By Allan B. Cobb
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Additional info for Animal Sciences. A-Crep
S. Problems of Relative Growth. New York: Dial Press, 1932. Thompson, D. W. On Growth and Form. : Cambridge University Press, 1942. Altruism Altruism, defined as an action that benefits the receiver but comes at some cost to the performer, is one of the four types of social interactions that can occur between animals of the same species. Figure 1 summarizes these four interactions. Cooperation, where both actor and receiver benefit, and selfishness, where the action benefits the actor at the expense of the receiver, are by far the most common of the four interactions in nature.
Caecilians also possess a unique sense organ called the tentacle, which is found between the nostril and the eye. It functions as a chemical sensor (detector). Caecilians feed primarily on earthworms and other invertebrates. Unlike frogs and salamanders, caecilians do not use tongue projection to capture prey. Rather, they catch a worm with their jaws, spin it lengthwise in order to remove and ingest a piece, and then try to catch the worm again. viviparous producing living young (instead of eggs) that were nourished by a placenta between the mother and offspring Also in contrast to frogs and salamanders, more than half of caecilian species are viviparous, or live bearing.
For example, seagulls sometimes steal food from nesting neighbors to feed themselves and their chicks. This behavior clearly increases the fitness of the actor while natural selection the process by which organisms best suited to their environment are most likely to survive and reproduce Social Interactions that can occur between animals of the same species. 17 Altruism decreasing the fitness of the receiver; it is selfish. Imagine an altruistic seagull that willingly provided food for its neighbors.