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This species has only one pair of small legs, situated behind the feathery external gills. Great crested newt Triturus cristatus 4–6 in (10–15 cm) Pacific giant salamander Dicamptodon tenebrosus 61⁄2 –131⁄2 in (17–34 cm) 47 AMPHIBIANS Frogs and toads Order Anura Frogs and toads lack tails, at least as adults. Their hind limbs are much larger than their front legs and are adapted for jumping, swimming, and digging. Most are active at night and communicate by calling. Frogs and toads occur in temperate and tropical habitats in all continents.

5m (5ft). Fertilization is internal. Some species lay eggs, from which free-living larvae emerge, while in others development through metamorphosis occurs within the mother, who gives birth to small adults. Caecilians are difficult to observe and their biology is less well known than that of other amphibians. SRI LANKAN CAECILIAN Ichthyophis glutinosus, seen protecting its eggs, is 12–15 1⁄ 2 in (30–40 cm) long. It lives underground and feeds on worms and other invertebrates. Ringed caecilian Siphonops annulatus 8–151⁄ 2 in (20–40 cm) Salamanders and newts Order Caudata These tailed amphibians generally lead secretive lives.

A substantial number of species have just three toes and a few, including the ostrich, have just two toes. Tinamous Ostrich Rheas Cassowaries and emus Order Tinamiformes Order Struthioniformes Order Rheiformes Order Casuariiformes This ancient South American family of ground-living, quail-like birds lives mostly in dense, tropical forest as far north as Mexico. Some species live in open grasslands. Elusive but often heard, they eat insects, seeds, and berries, and range from 6–191⁄ 2 in (15–50 cm) in length.

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