By Robert B. Ewen
Meant as an higher point undergraduate and/pr graduate point textual content for classes on theories of character, character thought, character, or psychology of character. It offers an advent to the guidelines of crucial character theorist
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Theories of Personality: 6th Edition
Fantasy (daydreaming) Gratifying unfulﬁlled needs by imagining situations in which they are satisﬁed; a defense mechanism. Identiﬁcation (1) Reducing painful feelings of self-contempt by becoming like objects that are illustrious and admired, such as idols, aggressors, or lost loves; a defense mechanism that may be partly or wholly unconscious. (2) The healthy desire to become like one’s parents. Intellectualization Unconsciously separating threatening emotions from the associated thoughts or events and reacting on only an intellectual level; a defense mechanism.
It can obtain relief by substituting more acceptable thoughts or actions, or by resorting to defense mechanisms. It is possible for the superego to be underdeveloped, leaving the individual without effective inner guidelines. Children brought up without love do not introject proper standards, lack appropriate tension between the ego and superego, and have few qualms about aggressing against others (Freud, 1930/1961b, p. 77n). More often, however, the superego proves to be a harsh master—and another potential source of danger.
Introjection Unconsciously incorporating someone else’s values or personal qualities into one’s own personality. Projection Unconsciously attributing one’s own threatening impulses, emotions, or beliefs to other people or things; a defense mechanism. Rationalization Using and believing superﬁcially plausible explanations in order to justify illicit behavior and reduce feelings of guilt; a defense mechanism. Reaction formation Repressing threatening beliefs, emotions, or impulses and unconsciously replacing them with their opposites; a defense mechanism.