By Robert B. Ewen
Meant as an higher point undergraduate and/pr graduate point textual content for classes on theories of character, character thought, character, or psychology of character. It presents an creation to the guidelines of crucial character theorist
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Extra info for An Introduction to Theories of Personality: 6th Edition
The ego is “a kind of facade of the id … like an external, cortical, layer of it” (Freud, 1926/1969b, pp. 18–19). Unlike the id, however, the ego spans the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. The ego is the only component of personality that can interact with the environment. It is logical and rational, and forms realistic plans of action designed to satisfy the needs of the id. Although the ego is also interested in pleasure, it suspends the pleasure principle in favor of the reality principle and delays the discharge of tension until a suitable object can be found.
For example, the dream-work may change troublesome latent Oedipal thoughts into manifest content wherein the dreamer enjoys a romantic affair with an attractive stranger, defeating a serious rival in the process. If the ego decides that greater deception is necessary, perhaps because the Oedipus complex is still a source of considerable conﬂict, the dreamwork may turn love into anger and alter the sex (or even the species) of the romantic object. Now the manifest content will have the dreamer ﬁghting with a person of the same sex.
Freud, 1936/1966, p. 123). The ego may also protect itself by refusing to face an unpleasant truth (denial of reality). Denial differs from repression in that the threat occurs in the external world, rather than within your own psyche (A. Freud, 1936/1966, p. 109). ” The terrifying specter of death is a frequent cause of denial, for it is very difﬁcult to accept the fact that we and our loved ones will someday be gone (Becker, 1973). Denial is often accompanied by another defense mechanism, fantasy, where unfulﬁlled needs are gratiﬁed in one’s imagination.