Download An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E by Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole PDF

By Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole

ISBN-10: 1444146084

ISBN-13: 9781444146080

A brand new variation of the UK's normal creation to the dangers provided via ionizing radiation and the equipment of defense and control.

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Extra info for An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E

Sample text

Having radiotherapy treatment) is much smaller. 3 Use of radioisotopes Radioisotopes are used in medicine to give a means of tracing the path and location of specific chemicals in the body. Since radioactive isotopes are chemically identical to stable isotopes of the same element, they will follow the same path and be concentrated to the same degree as the non-active isotopes in the body. g. so-called ‘gamma cameras’), the behaviour of the active, and hence by analogy of the ordinary non-active, isotopes of the element may be determined.

Since the neutrons are being emitted uniformly in all directions, the flux at distance r is the number of neutrons emitted per second divided by the area of the sphere of radius, r. This area is 4pr2 and so the flux F is given by: F= Q neutrons per square metre per second (n/m2/s) 4pr2 Note that if r is doubled, r2 increases fourfold and F reduces fourfold. 31. 5 m from a source which emits 2 ¥ 107 n/s. 4 ¥ 106 n/m2/s. 1 TBq cobalt-60 source. 1 TBq = 1011 dis/s, but for 60Co there are two g-photons per disintegration.

However, it is found that death is not instantaneous even in animals irradiated with doses in excess of 500 Gy. Another effect which shows up soon after an acute overexposure to radiation is erythema, that is, reddening of the skin. In many situations the skin is subject to more radiation exposure than most other tissues. This is especially true for b-rays and lowenergy X-rays. A dose of about 3 Gy of low-energy X-rays will result in erythema, and larger exposures may lead to other symptoms such as changes in pigmentation, blistering and ulceration.

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