By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, strength potency and weather switch, this publication presents an advent to Japan’s environmental rules and rules, and gives monetary analyses and RIAs (Regulatory influence research) of environmental laws carried out or deliberate via the nationwide and native governments. the outlet bankruptcy reports environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting autos in metropolitan components. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan govt legislation which calls for deploy of toxins regulate apparatus in older vans that fail to fulfill emission criteria. bankruptcy four lines the impression of the NOx-PM Act at the used automobile industry and used car exports. bankruptcy five offers an fiscal research of a road toll aid, revealing an unforeseen unfavourable social effect: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters tackle regulations and laws with regards to strength potency and weather swap bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s power Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended a number of instances to handle weather swap. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the influence of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate non permanent monetary affects in every one zone. additionally awarded this is an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the effect of the thought on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the function and barriers of financial types for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse gasoline) emission goal in the course of the post-Kyoto interval. this can be the 1st booklet to judge eastern environmental rules from an financial viewpoint, utilizing numerous present quantitative techniques. Its findings and proposals will gain scholars, coverage makers and executive officers in constructing and built international locations the place the general public faces related environmental problems.
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Additional resources for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
Hereafter, we refer to these areas as non-attainment areas. However, the Act was not particularly effective in reducing NOx emissions. ” This Act targets “specified areas,” which refer to metropolitan areas in which air pollution is much more severe than in other regions in Japan and in which the ambient air quality standard was not met (non-attainment areas). ” 3 22 Fig. 1 Trend of tightening of NOx and PM emission intensities. Note: The values are averages because emission intensities are set by vehicle type.
36 2 Ex Ante Policy Evaluation of the Vehicle Type Regulation Fig. 6 Changes in the volume of NOx and PM emissions: with and without the VTR municipalities that are not included in the report, we used the average mileage per vehicle for each vehicle type. With regard to emissions factors, we used the results of a survey (Suri-Keikau Inc. 2005) and obtained NOx and PM emissions intensities for the following categories: fuel type, vehicle type, years in which vehicles met the emissions standards, and speed per kilometer.
As the prices of used vehicles are lower than those of new vehicles, our model may again overestimate the true cost. However, because the share of used trucks is small (JAMA 2005a, b), we believe that the amount of bias from this source is limited. Even after the use of certain vehicles is prohibited in the enforcement areas, such vehicles may be moved to another location and used elsewhere; registrations can be transferred to regions that are close to but outside of enforcement areas. In that case, the NOx -PM Act along with the Act on the Assurance of Car Parking Spaces and Other Matters requires that owners update their addresses.