By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, strength potency and weather swap, this ebook presents an creation to Japan’s environmental guidelines and laws, and provides financial analyses and RIAs (Regulatory effect research) of environmental laws carried out or deliberate by way of the nationwide and native governments. the hole bankruptcy studies environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using outdated and polluting cars in metropolitan components. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan govt law which calls for deploy of toxins keep an eye on gear in older vehicles that fail to fulfill emission criteria. bankruptcy four strains the effect of the NOx-PM Act at the used motor vehicle marketplace and used automobile exports. bankruptcy five provides an fiscal research of a road toll aid, revealing an unforeseen unfavorable social impression: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters deal with regulations and laws concerning strength potency and weather switch bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s strength Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended quite a few occasions to deal with weather switch. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the effect of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate temporary fiscal affects in every one region. additionally offered this is an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the influence of the notion on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the position and barriers of monetary versions for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse fuel) emission goal throughout the post-Kyoto interval. this is often the 1st booklet to guage jap environmental rules from an financial viewpoint, utilizing various present quantitative techniques. Its findings and recommendations will gain scholars, coverage makers and executive officers in constructing and built nations the place the general public faces comparable environmental problems.
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Additional info for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
2 billion yen, was obtained by subtracting the total cost from the total benefit. Next, we present the results of the sensitivity analysis. 4 billion yen at the lowest. The finding that the highest benefit is more than double the lowest benefit results from the difference between the upper and lower bounds of the MEC. 3 billion yen at the lowest. Both values are positive, confirming the effectiveness of the VTR. Our estimates of the benefit should be interpreted with caution, as they are likely to be biased.
In the chapter, we will first provide an overview of the act and then examine its effects by using energy consumption data from the hotel industry. Our analysis will reveal that the act contributed to GHG emissions reduction. It is also found that while some hotels did not achieve the target, others reduced their consumption more than required. The results imply that the act has some room for improvement. In Chap. 7, we will examine the economic impact of a carbon tax. A carbon tax is a market-based countermeasure for mitigating GHG emissions and, theoretically, it reduces GHG emissions at a minimum cost.
8), we can estimate the amount of emissions reduction. ERt;p r , the reduction of emissions of pollutant p in year t, is the difference between emissions under the VTR (Eq. 8)) and emissions without the VTR (Eq. 7)), as expressed below: ,p t, p ERtr, p ¼ Etwo , r À E w, r ð2:9Þ The total emissions reduction in year t is computed by summing Eq. 9) over the registration year, vehicle type, weight, fuel type, and region, expressed as follows: XX TERt, p ¼ ERtr, p ð2:10Þ r where the first Σ represents summing over all types of vehicles in the enforcement areas.