By Hartmut Janocha
Read or Download Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications, Second Edition PDF
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Extra resources for Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications, Second Edition
While cooling through the phase transition temperature Tc , oxygen anions move down (note: oxygen atoms on the top and bottom faces shift more than the oxygen atoms on the side faces) and the Ti-cations move up relative to the Ba frame as shown in Fig. 1b, forming an upward dipole in each unit cell . Associated with the formation of the electric dipole, the unit cell is also elongated along the poling direction, reﬂecting a strong coupling between the electric dipole formation and crystal structure distortion.
These sensors will monitor the structural aging process and will determine when the artifact should be repaired or even graciously retired. Thus, scheduled maintenance will be replaced by need-based maintenance, with associate savings in the life-cycle costs and increase in the structural safety and equipment availability. Piezoelectric materials oﬀer the capability of performing active structural health monitoring, i. , actively interrogating the structure with ultrasonic waves to detect damage such as cracks, de-bonding, delaminations, etc.
6). The second common example is the design of high altitude long endurance (HALE) aircraft that can take oﬀ and land on their own. Extremely long, highly ﬂexible wingspans are required for long endurance and such wings tend to hit the ground during take oﬀ and landing. A morphing solution would be to fold or otherwise morph such wings into shapes more favorable for take oﬀ and landing. 3 Application Examples 23 Fig. 7. Concept of an aging aircraft instrumented with active sensors for structural health monitoring cordingly.