By Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (auth.), Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (eds.)
From the very starting in their research of human reasoning, philosophers have pointed out different kinds of reasoning, in addition to deduction, which we now name abduction and induction. Deduction is now particularly good understood, yet abduction and induction have eluded the same point of knowing. The papers amassed right here deal with the connection among abduction and induction and their attainable integration. The technique is usually philosophical, occasionally that of natural common sense, and a few papers undertake the extra task-oriented technique of AI.
The ebook will command the eye of philosophers, logicians, AI researchers and desktop scientists in general.
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Extra resources for Abduction and Induction: Essays on their Relation and Integration
New information given to us by the observations is to be used to complete this description. As we argue below, abduction and induction each deal with a different kind of incompleteness of the theory T. Abductive extensions. In a typical use of abduction, the description of the problem domain by the theory T is further assumed to be sufficient, in the sense that it has reached a stage where we can reason with it. Typically this means that the incompleteness of the theory can be isolated in some of its non-observable predicates, which are called abducible (or open) predicates.
4 Interaction between abduction and induction In the preceding sections we analysed basic patterns of abduction and induction. In practice hybrid forms of ampliative reasoning occur, requiring an interaction between these basic patterns. Such interaction is the subject of this section. Let us consider a simple example originating from (Michalski, 1993). We have the observation that: 0: all bananas in this shop are yellow, and we want to explain this given a theory T containing the statement: T: all bananas from Barbados are yellow.
In abduction the theory T is fixed and we vary the instance knowledge to capture (via T) the observable knowledge. On the other hand, in induction the instance knowledge is fixed as part of the background knowledge B, and we vary the general theory so that if the selected theory T is taken as our abductive theory then the instance knowledge in B will form an abductive solution for the observations that drove the induction. Conversely, if we perform abduction with T and we consider the abductive hypothesis A explaining the observations as instance knowledge, the original theory T forms a valid inductive hypothesis.