By Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (auth.), Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (eds.)
From the very starting in their research of human reasoning, philosophers have pointed out different kinds of reasoning, along with deduction, which we now name abduction and induction. Deduction is now particularly good understood, yet abduction and induction have eluded the same point of knowing. The papers accumulated the following deal with the connection among abduction and induction and their attainable integration. The procedure is usually philosophical, occasionally that of natural good judgment, and a few papers undertake the extra task-oriented process of AI.
The e-book will command the eye of philosophers, logicians, AI researchers and desktop scientists in general.
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Additional resources for Abduction and Induction: Essays on their Relation and Integration
For example, an unobserved individual and its background properties can be understood via a corresponding abductive formula ll.. A. FLACH AND A. C. 7 Given an abductive theory T as above, the process of abduction is to select one of the abductive extensions T(A) ofT in which the given observation to be explained holds, by selecting the corresponding formula A. We can then reason deductively in T(A) to arrive at other conclusions. By selecting A we are essentially enabling one of the possible associations between A and the observation among those supplied by the theory T.
FLACH AND A. C. KAKAS from the language of the problem domain (rather than a given theory of the domain), in a process of iteratively improving a hypothesis to meet the various requirements posed by the problem. Furthermore, in induction the comparison of the different possible hypotheses plays a prominent and dynamic role in the actual process of hypothesis generation, whereas in abduction evaluation of the different alternative hypothesis may be done after these have been generated. It should be noted, however, that the observed computational differences between generating abductive hypotheses and generating inductive hypotheses are likely to become smaller once more complex abductive hypotheses are allowed.
The latter necessarily contains foreground information pertaining to the observations at hand. Possible abductive hypotheses are built from specific non-observable predicates called abducibles in ALP. The intuition is that these are the predicates of which the extensions are not completely known as instance knowledge. Thus, an abductive hypothesis is one which completes the instance knowledge about an observed individual. This difference between the effect of abduction and induction on observable and instance knowledge is studied in the chapter by Console and Saitta.