By Edwin Burmeister; Richard Roll; Stephen A. Ross; Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Richard Grinold and Ronald N. Kahn
This monograph offers the paintings of 3 teams of specialists addressing using single-factor versions to give an explanation for safeguard returns: Edwin Burmeister, Richard Roll, and Stephen Ross clarify the fundamentals of Arbitrage Pricing idea and talk about the macroeconomic forces which are the underlying resources of chance; Edwin J. Elton and Martin J. Gruber current multi-index types and supply tips on their reliability and usability; and Richard C. Grinold and Ronald N. Kahn handle multiple-factor versions for portfolio hazard.
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Ideally, the structure will hold for time periods and securities beyond those used in the estimation sample. Obviously, the data cannot suggest a factor if that factor was not present during the time period chosen. For example, assume that changes in oil prices affect equity returns. Using returns from a period with minimal changes in oil prices will probably mean that changes in oil prices had a very small influence on security returns in the period and that this factor will not be recovered by factor analysis.
The techniques come with their own problems and their own set of choices. We will discuss four of these: the effect of the choice of data, the number of indexes to use, indeterminacy of the model, and computational diaculties. The Choice of Data. The input to factor or principal component analysis is a sample of security returns. In preparing the return data, the researcher must select both the time period of returns and the sample of stocks (or portfolios of stocks) to use to estimate a factor structure.
PK such that It then follows immediately that the APT holds provided that for all j = 1, . . , K. Conversely, if the APT is true and the above K CAPM restrictions on the Pis hold, then the CAPM is also true. Given an LFM for asset returns, these are the CAPM restrictions that are rejected in favor of the APT in statistical tests. Appendix B We will show that K well-diversified portfolios can substitute for the factors in an APT model. To simplify the computations, we assume that K = 2; the general case is easily handled using matrix algebra.