By Abigail Firey
Among the 3rd and 16th centuries, penance (the acts or gestures played to compensate for transgression, frequently with an curiosity within the salvation of the penitent's soul) was once a very important mode of participation in either society and the cosmos. Penance was once included into political and criminal negotiations, it erupted in improvisational social dramas, it used to be topic to experimentation and innovation, and it saturated western tradition with photographs of contrition, pain, and reconciliation. throughout the overdue old, medieval, and early smooth classes, rituals for the correction of human mistakes grew to become either refined and popular.Creativity in penitential expression displays the diversity and complexity of social and non secular events within which penance used to be very important. utilizing hitherto unconsidered resource fabrics, the individuals chart new perspectives on how in western tradition, human behavior was once modulated and directed in styles formed via the fearsome but embraced practices of penance. individuals are R. Emmet McLaughlin, Rob Meens, Kevin Uhalde, Claudia Rapp, Dominique Iogna-Prat, Abigail Firey, Karen Wagner, Joseph Goering, H. Ansgar Kelly, Torstein Jorgensen, Wietse de Boer, Ronald okay. Rittgers, Gretchen Starr-LeBeau, and Jodi Bilinkoff.
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Additional resources for A New History of Penance (Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition)
272. Although he often disagreed with Morin, the Jesuit theologian Nicolaus Schmittlein, Dissertatio historico-dogmatico-theologica, de sacramento poenitentiae (Bamberg, 1760), p. 7, cited only Morin and other Jesuits. Morin’s accomplishment also freed the celebrated Maurist Edmond Martène (1654–1739) to concentrate on the other rites and sacraments; see Edmond Martène, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus . . (Antwerp, 1736), preface [hereafter cited as Martène]. 51 Tournely, pp. 175–76. 52 Juénin, 1:20.
Around 1140, Peter Pictavensis [Peter of Poitiers] was the first to make the distinction of a “solemn” from “public” penance; see Morin, pp. 203, 320. Public penance was still practised in rural areas; see Morin, p. 322. 43 Morin, pp. 789–90. 44 Morin, p. 781. 45 Also beginning around 1100, a new indicative formula of absolution appears occasionally alongside the almost universal deprecative. 46 Beginning around 1130, the scholastics also argue about the role of contrition and the necessity of auricular confession to a priest.
119 Müller, “Umschwung,” pp. 297–99, 304–06. The conservative sacramental position was defended by Hugh of St Victor; see pp. 299–300. On the role of Abelard, see also Polykarp Schmoll, Die Busslehre der Frühscholastic: eine dogmengeschichtliche Untersuchung (Munich, 1909), pp. 33–34. Abelard’s ethics reduced the goodness or sinfulness of an action to the intention of the actor, seemingly denying any objective standards of good and evil. 120 Interestingly, Mausbach, “zur scholastischen Reuelehre,” pp.