By University of Hawaii at Manoa Alexander Vovin
Including half 1 of a similar grammar (Sources, Script and Phonology, Lexicon and Nominals), this two-volume set represents the main targeted and exhaustive description ever performed of any language, together with jap of the outdated jap language of the Yamato zone through the Asuka Nara interval. It offers enormous quantities of examples drawn not just from the foremost outdated eastern texts comparable to the Man'yoshu, the Senmyo, the Kojiki kayo and the Nihonshoki kayo but additionally from all minor extant texts comparable to the Fudoky kayo, the Bussoku seki ka, and others. it is usually comparative fabric from japanese outdated jap as soon as spoken within the quarter approximately akin to present-day southern Chubu and Kanto areas, in addition to from Ryukyuan and infrequently from different surrounding languages. half 2 is followed by means of exhaustive and cumulative indexes to either volumes, together with separate indexes on all grammatical varieties defined, linguistic kinds, own names, in addition to an index of all outdated jap texts which are used as examples within the description.
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Extra resources for A Descriptive and Comparative Grammar of Western Old Japanese: Part 2: Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Particles, Postpositions
438 GRAMMAR OF WESTERN OLD JAPANESE The last two examples imply that the reduced attributive form N- of the defective verb n- 'to be' could also be used after the special adjectival form in -ra. COMPARATIVE DATA LEVEL A: OTHER JAPONIC At: Eastern Old Japanese Similar to Western Old Japanese, adjective stems can also be used in Eastern Old Japanese to modify following nouns or noun phrases. ~fima~~~*mfi~~ iNtu-no umyi-ni tat-u sira namyi-no ar-i-tutu mwo INtu-GEN sea-LOC rise-ATTR white wave-COMP exist-INFCOORPT Although [I] continue to live like the white waves, rising in the INtu sea ...
But this traditional representation violates the general rule of the Western Old Japanese phonotactics mentioned above and it also raises the same problem as in the case of kai 'oar': why do koi- and oi- not monophthongize into *kiy- and *i[y]-, or contract into *kyi and *i respectively? Surely, both monophthongization and contraction are present in the Old Japanese verbal system. For Cf. ka - key 'day,' ka - key 'hair' < *ka-i, and wa-Nk-yimwo 'my beloved,' waNk-yipye 'my house' < wa-Nka imwo, wa-Nka ipye.
Ff*~ •• 7 .. TU~Kq:rq. ~%j"}j ~ f=I3A~JL'-'f~3C lMASI-tati pa SANTAKA n-i AKA-kyi KOKORO-wo MOT-I-te you-PLUR TOP loyal DV-INF bright-ATTR heart-ACC hold-INFSUB you, with loyal and clear hearts ... (SM 37) Overall, -ka adjectives in Western Old Japanese occur very infrequently compared to Middle Japanese. The most frequent usage seems to be an adverbial one, which is discussed below. ' 7 ADJECTIVES 443 insufficient DV-INF PT I TOP think-INF-PAST/ATTR Opu-GEN bay the bay of Opu about which I did not think much (lit.