By Arthur A. Cohen, Paul Mendes-Flohr
JPS is proud to reissue Cohen and Mendes-Flohr’s vintage paintings, maybe crucial, finished anthology to be had on twentieth century Jewish concept. This remarkable quantity offers one hundred forty concise but authoritative essays by way of well known Jewish figures Eugene Borowitz, Emil Fackenheim, Blu Greenberg, Susannah Heschel, Jacob Neusner, Gershom Scholem, Adin Steinsaltz, and so on. They outline and mirror upon such vital rules as charity, selected humans, loss of life, kin, love, fantasy, affliction, Torah, culture and extra. With entries from Aesthetics to Zionism, this publication presents outstanding insights into either the Jewish adventure and the Judeo-Christian culture.
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Additional info for 20th Century Jewish Religious Thought
An act performed out of fear of punishment is irreconcilable with an attitude of devotion to and love of God. But this attitude, "accepting the kingdom of heaven," is the prerequisite for any truly religiOUS act, for any real commandment. The fact that the punishment comes from God does nothing to alter the basic nature of the act. A cowering act of fearful submission does not, according to the Zohar, acquire any additional religious significance Simply because the over- 34 AUTHORITY powering and threatening figure is divine and not human.
And according to this source the God of Israel designated the tabernacle erected by Moses as his abode, the only place where sacrifices could be offered (cf. Lev. 17). In accordance with this view the priestly sou'rce describes the patriarchal period as devoid of divine worship through sacrifice. Circumcision and the Sabbath occupy significant positions in this source (Gen. 1; Ex. 12:44, 48, 16:12-17, 35:1-3). It is only natural that priestly circles should be highly BIBLE CRITICISM 37 concerned about these matters, which give external-physical expression to Israel's uniqueness.
BIBLIOGRAPHY David Hartman, Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest (1976). Gershom Scholem, On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism: Authority and Mysticism (1965). Efraim Urbach, The Sages: Their Concepts and Beliefs (1975). Bible CriticislIl Moshe Weinfeld C ritical questions concerning the composition of biblical literary creations, and especially the Pentateuch, were raised as early as medieval times. Joseph Ibn Kaspi, the fourteenth-century Proven~al Jewish philosopher and exegete, paid special attention to the differentiation of divine names in the Torah: Tetragrammaton on the one hand and Elohim (God) on the other.